The Quest for Dual and Binary SMBH in Multi-messenger Era

13-17 January 2025

The identification and physical characterization of dual (i.e., on kpc scale) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries (at sub-kpc/pc scale) play a fundamental role in extragalactic astronomy and fundamental physics. Such systems allow us to observationally constrain the galaxy merger rate and study processes playing out from the initial galactic mergers to SMBH coalescence. Besides, as potential sources of low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs), SMBH binaries probe gravity at its extremes. Dual AGN and SMBH binaries are therefore primary sources for multi- messenger observations. The Focus Week is meant to provide the framework where strategies to observe these systems, theories and simulations are discussed and rigorously compared, setting the stage for new ambitious observing programs, including ground- and space-based telescopes. An in-depth discussion of opportunities with the forthcoming facilities will pave the way for the generation of young astronomers.


  • Cristian Vignali (Universitay of Bologna)
  • Alessandra De Rosa (INAF−IAPS, Rome)
  • Paola Severgnini (INAF−OAB, Milan)


  • TBA